Endel Tulving

Dr. Endel Tulving

Scientist Emeritus

Research Focus

I continue to explore the implications and ramifications of the idea that memory takes the form of different systems all of which have some properties in common and every one of which differs from others in fundamental ways. My special interests are still focused on episodic memory--the kind of memory that allows us to "mentally travel" in time, and thus recollect our own past experiences, events we have observed and participated in. I first proposed, mostly on theoretical grounds, that episodic memory is different from other kinds of memory back in 1972, but since that time the initial conceptualization has been considerably elaborated and modified. In the beginning there was a great deal of skepticism about, and resistance to, the idea that episodic memory is fundamentally different from other kinds of memory. Over the intervening years, however, more and more scientists have come to accept the idea, and episodic memory has become a regular theme of clinical, experimental, and theoretical research.

One feature that distinguishes episodic from other forms of memory is what I have called "autonoetic" ("self-knowing") consciousness. When you remember a past happening you have a familiar kind of mental experience that you recognize as "remembering." It is clearly different from the kinds of mental experiences that you have when you see the sights and hear the sounds around you, or when you think about things in the world "out there," or when you solve problems, or imagine what people, objects or scenes look like. The autonoetic kind of conscious awareness does not accompany the use of any other kind of memory-based skill, it is a feature of only episodic memory.

Another distinguishing feature of episodic memory is "chronesthesia" ("subjective sense of the past, present, and future time.") Contrary to popular opinion, no other kind of memory (or memory system) has any special relationship to time. The subjective sense of time ("chronesthesia") and the self-knowing and self-centered consciousness ("autonoetic" consciousness) are closely related concepts that have been difficult to study in the past, but which now are being investigated by using the techniques of functional neuroimaging (scanning of activity in living brains).

A third (hypothetical) feature that makes episodic memory different from other kinds is that it is of relatively recent evolutionary origin, and that as such, at least in its full-fledged form, it exists in human beings only. Many animals--mammals such as mice, squirrels, dogs, elephants, and chimpanzees, as well as most if not all birds--have excellent "semantic" memory. That is, they are capable of conscious learning of facts about the world. However, there exists no evidence that they can mentally travel in time in the same was as humans do, to remember the past and to plan for the future. It is in this sense that remembering the past and envisioning the future can be thought of as uniquely human brain/mind capacities.

A special difficulty in objectively studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals lies in the fact that animals do not have language. When, in a behavioral test, animals make use of knowledge that they have learned in the laboratory, we cannot ask them, as we can ask verbally competent humans, whether they remember learning it (episodic memory) or whether they just know what to do in a given situation (semantic memory). Inspired by others, I have described a kind of a possible test of autonoetic episodic memory for animals without language (chapter in a 2005 book edited by Terrace and Metcalfe). Young human children past a certain age, being human, have no difficulty passing the test. It remains to be seen whether any of our furry or feathered friends can do likewise.

Publications

Title Source (Journal/Book/Conference) Authors/Presenters Published On Type
Consciousness of subjective time in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Nyberg L, Kim AS, Habib R, Levine B, Tulving E 1292907600 Journal Article
Neuroelectrical evidence for cognitive association formation SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE ABSTRACTS Kim ASN, Binns MA, Alain C, Tulving E 1289710800 Abstract
Cognitive association formation in episodic memory: Evidence from event-related potentials Neuropsychologia Kim AS, Vallesi A, Picton TW, Tulving E 1259643600 Journal Article
J'ai revele la memoire episodique Memoire: L'Entretien Tulving E 1246420800 Journal Article
Episodic memory Scholarpedia Tulving E, Szpunar KK 1233896400 Journal Article
Seeing sounds and hearing sights: The influence of prior learning on current perception Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Ryan JD, Moses SN, Ostreicher M, Bardouille T, Herdman AT, Riggs L, Tulving E 1212552000 Journal Article
Does time exist? Rotman Rounds Tulving E 1189396800 Presentation
Are there 256 kinds of memory? The Foundations of Remembering: Essays in Honor of Henry L. Roediger, III Tulving E 1181016000 Book Chapter
On the law of primacy Memory and mind: A Festschrift for Gordon H. Bower Tulving E 1181016000 Book Chapter
Memory concepts Science of Memory: Concepts Dudai Y, Roediger HL III, Tulving E 1181016000 Book Chapter
Coding and representation: Searching for a home in the brain Science of Memory: Concepts Tulving E 1181016000 Book Chapter
The evolution of foresight: What is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans? Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E, Kim A 1180670400 Journal Article
Acute effects of alcohol on neural correlates of episodic memory encoding Neuroimage Söderlund H, Grady CL, Easdon CE, Tulving E 1167627600 Journal Article
Theory of mind is independent of episodic memory Science Rosenbaum RS, Stuss DT, Levine B, Tulving E 1167627600 Journal Article
What do explanations of the distinctiveness effect need to explain? Distinctiveness and Memory Tulving E, Rosenbaum RS 1136091600 Book Chapter
Memory encoding and retrieval on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol concentration curve Psychopharmacology Söderlund H, Parker ES, Schwartz BL, Tulving E 1128139200 Journal Article
Episodic memory and autonoesis: Uniquely human? The Missing Link in Cognition: Self-Knowing Consciousness in Man and Animals Tulving E 1117944000 Book Chapter
The case of K.C.: contributions of a memory-impaired person to memory theory Neuropsychologia Rosenbaum RS, Köhler S, Schacter DL, Moscovitch M, Westmacott R, Black SE, Gao F, Tulving E 1104555600 Journal Article
Episodic memory: From mind to brain Revue Neurologique Tulving E 1080795600 Abstract
Human hippocampal and parahippocampal activity during visual associative recognition memory for spatial and nonspatial stimulus configurations Journal of Neuroscience Düzel E, Habib R, Rotte M, Guderian S, Tulving E, Heinze H-J 1066190400 Journal Article
Hemispheric asymmetries of memory: the HERA model revisited Trends in Cognitive Sciences Habib R, McIntosh AR, Wheeler MA, Tulving E 1054440000 Journal Article
Memory encoding and hippocampally-based novelty/familiarity discrimination networks Neuropsychologia Habib R, McIntosh AR, Wheeler MA, Tulving E 1041397200 Journal Article
Functional neuroanatomy of object and spatial associative learning in humans JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Habib R, Duezel E, Rotte M, Tulving E, Heinze HJ 1018756800 Abstract
Functional neuroanatomy of recognition memory for novel configurations of learned stimulus associations JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Duezel E, Habib R, Rotte M, Tulving E, Heinze HJ 1018756800 Abstract
Episodic memory: From mind to brain Annual Review of Psychology Tulving E 1009861200 Journal Article
Chronesthesia - Awareness of subjective time Principles of Frontal Lobe Functions Tulving E 1009861200 Book Chapter
What is going on in the right prefrontal cortex? BRAIN AND COGNITION Tulving E 1001908800 Abstract
Episodic memory and common sense: how far apart? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences Tulving E 1001736000 Journal Article
Transperceptual encoding and retrieval processes in memory: A PET study of visual and haptic objects NeuroImage Lepage M, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 999316800 Journal Article
Comparative electrophysiological and hemodynamic measures of neural activation during memory-retrieval Human Brain Mapping Duzel E, Picton TW, Cabeza R, Yonelinas AP, Scheich H, Heinze HJ, Tulving E 978325200 Journal Article
Origin of autonoesis in episodic memory The Nature of Remembering: Essays in Honor of Robert G. Crowder Tulving E 978325200 Book Chapter
Does memory encoding exist? Perspectives on Human Memory and Cognitive Aging - Essays in Honour of Fergus Craik Tulving E 978325200 Book Chapter
Reactivation of encoding-related brain activity during memory retrieval Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Nyberg L, Habib R, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 969940800 Journal Article
Nonlinear brain-behavior relations in verbal learning JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Habib R, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 955252800 Abstract
Neural correlates of haptic memory in humans JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Lepage M, Cormier H, McIntosh AR, Danjoux N, Tulving E 955252800 Abstract
Prefrontal cortex and episodic memory retrieval mode Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Lepage M, Ghaffar O, Nyberg L, Tulving E 946962000 Journal Article
Individual differences in the functional neuroanatomy of verbal discrimination learning revealed by positron emission tomography Acta Psychologica Habib R, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 946702800 Journal Article
Large scale neurocognitive networks underlying episodic memory Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Nyberg L, Habib R, Tulving E, Cabeza R, Houle S, Persson J, McIntosh AR 946702800 Journal Article
Concepts of memory The Oxford Handbook of Memory Tulving E 946702800 Book Chapter
Where in the brain is awareness of one's past? Memory, Brain, and Belief Tulving E, Lepage M 946702800 Book Chapter
Introduction to Memory The New Cognitive Neurosciences Tulving E 946702800 Book Chapter
Memory - Overview Encyclopedia of Psychology Tulving E 946702800 Book Chapter
Where in the brain is the awareness of one's past? MEMORY, BRAIN, AND BELIEF Tulving E, Lepage M 944024400 Presentation
Memory and consciousness in Tallinn MEMORY, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND THE BRAIN - THE TALLINN CONFERENCE Tulving E 944024400 Presentation
Task-related and item-related brain processes of memory retrieval Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Düzel E, Cabeza R, Picton TW, Yonelinas AP, Scheich H, Heinze H-J, Tulving E 919141200 Journal Article
Age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow associated with item and temporal-order memory retrieval BRAIN AND COGNITION Cabeza R, Anderson ND, Mangels JA, McIntosh AR, Houle S, Tulving E 917845200 Abstract
Positron emission tomography correlations in and beyond medial temporal lobes Hippocampus Tulving E, Habib R, Nyberg L, Lepage M, McIntosh AR 915166800 Journal Article
In search of the self: a positron emission tomography study Psychological Science Craik FIM, Moroz TM, Moscovitch M, Stuss DT, Winocur G, Tulving E, Kapur S 915166800 Journal Article
Prologue: Memory and consciousness in Tallinn Memory, Consciousness, and The Brain: The Tallinn Conference Tulving E 915166800 Book Chapter
On the uniqueness of episodic memory Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Tulving E 915166800 Book Chapter
Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia Brain Levine B, Black SE, Cabeza R, Sinden M, McIntosh AR, Toth JP, Tulving E, Stuss DT 907214400 Journal Article
Functional and structural neuroimaging correlates of selective retrograde amnesia: A case study with MRI and PET (vol 35, pg 372, 1997) Brain and Cognition Levin B, Cabeza R, Black S, Sinden M, Leibovitch F, Toth JP, Tulving E, Stuss DT 891406800 Journal Article
Functional neuroanatomy of item and temporal-order memory retrieval in young and older adults. JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Cabeza R, Anderson N, Mangels J, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 890197200 Abstract
Unilateral medial temporal lobe memory impairment: type deficit, function deficit, or both? Neuropsychologia Dobbins IG, Kroll NEA, Tulving E, Knight RT, Gazzaniga MS 886309200 Journal Article
Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus Hippocampus Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ 883630800 Journal Article
Hippocampal PET activations of memory encoding and retrieval: The HIPER model Hippocampus Lepage M, Habib R, Tulving E 883630800 Journal Article
Asymmetric frontal activation during episodic memory: what kind of specificity? Trends in Cognitive Sciences Nyberg L, Cabeza R, Tulving E 883630800 Journal Article
Study of memory - processes and systems Memory: Systems, Process, or Function? Tulving E 883630800 Book Chapter
Neurocognitive processes of human memory Basic Mechanisms in Cognition and Language Tulving E 883630800 Book Chapter
Functional and structural neuroimaging correlates of selective retrograde amnesia: A case study with MRI and PET BRAIN AND COGNITION Levine B, Cabeza R, Black S, Sinden M, Toth JP, Tulving E, Stuss DT 880952400 Abstract
Task-specific and item-specific processes in episodic and semantic memory retrieval: A combined PET and ERP study SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE ABSTRACTS Duzel E, Cabeza R, Picton TW, Yonelinas AP, Scheich H, Heinze H-J, Tulving E 877752000 Presentation
Brain regions differentially involved in remembering what and when: a PET Study Neuron Cabeza R, Mangels J, Nyberg L, Habib R, Houle S, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 875678400 Journal Article
Event-related brain potential correlates of two states of conscious awareness in memory Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Düzel E, Yonelinas AP, Heinze H-J, Mangun GR, Tulving E 864705600 Journal Article
Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness Psychological Bulletin Wheeler MA, Stuss DT, Tulving E 862459200 Journal Article
Cognitive subtractions may not add up: the interaction between semantic processing and response mode Neuroimage Jennings JM, McIntosh AR, Kapur S, Tulving E, Houle S 859870800 Journal Article
Memory beyond the hippocampus Current Opinion in Neurobiology Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ 859870800 Journal Article
Functional neuroanatomy of recall and recognition: A PET study of episodic memory Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Cabeza R, Kapur S, Craik FIM, McIntosh AR, Houle S, Tulving E 857192400 Journal Article
What are "Memory Disorders" disorders of? BRAIN AND COGNITION Tulving E 852094800 Abstract
Cross-modal priming in the densely amnesic subject K.C. BRAIN AND COGNITION Köhler S, Habib R, Black SE, Szekely C, Sinden M, Tulving E 852094800 Abstract
Functional brain imaging of episodic and semantic memory with positron emission tomography Journal of Molecular Medicine Nyberg L, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 852094800 Journal Article
Searching for memory systems European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Nyberg L, Tulving E 852094800 Journal Article
Differential functional connectivity of prefrontal and medial temporal cortices during episodic memory retrieval Human Brain Mapping McIntosh AR, Nyberg L, Bookstein FL, Tulving E, Tulving ET 852094800 Journal Article
Functional imaging of neural systems differentially involved in remembering what and when Neuron Cabeza R, Mangels J, Nyberg L, Habib R, Houle S, McIntosh AR, Tulving E 852094800 Journal Article
Age-related differences in effective neural connectivity during encoding and recall NeuroReport Cabeza R, McIntosh AR, Tulving E, Nyberg L, Grady CL 852094800 Journal Article
Age-related differences in neural activity during memory encoding and retrieval: a positron emission tomography study Journal of Neuroscience Cabeza R, Grady CL, Nyberg L, McIntosh AR, Tulving E, Kapur S, Jennings JM, Houle S, Craik FIM, Jennings J 852094800 Journal Article
FACT - The first axiom of consciousness and thought Mind and Brain Sciences in the twenty-first century Tulving E 852094800 Book Chapter
Age-related changes in neural interactions during memory encoding and retrieval: A network analysis of PET data Brain and Cognition Cabeza R, McIntosh AR, Grady CL, Nyberg L, Houle S, Tulving E 852094800 Journal Article
The neural correlates of intentional learning of verbal materials: A PET study in humans Cognitive Brain Research Kapur S, Tulving E, Cabeza R, McIntosh AR, Houle S, Craik FIM 846824400 Journal Article
Encoding operations and recognition failure BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Tulving E, Watkins OC 846738000 Abstract
General and specific brain regions involved in encoding and retrieval of events: What, where, and when Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Nyberg L, McIntosh AR, Cabeza RE, Habib R, Houle S, Tulving E 844142400 Journal Article
Classifying human long-term memory: Evidence from converging dissociations European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Nyberg L, Tulving E 833601600 Journal Article
PET studies of encoding and retrieval: The HERA model Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Nyberg L, Cabeza R, Tulving E 833601600 Journal Article
Network analysis of positron emission tomography regional cerebral blood flow data: Ensemble Inhibition during episodic memory retrieval Journal of Neuroscience Nyberg L, McIntosh AR, Cabeza R, Nilsson L-G, Houle S, Habib R, Tulving E, Tulving R 833601600 Journal Article
Activation of medial temporal structures during episodic memory retrieval Nature Nyberg L, McIntosh AR, Houle S, Nilsson L-G, Tulving E 830404800 Journal Article
Cohesion failure as a source of memory illusions Journal of Memory and Language Kroll NEA, Knight RT, Metcalfe J, Wolfe ES, Tulving E 828334800 Journal Article
Novelty and familiarity activations in PET studies of memory encoding and retrieval Cerebral Cortex Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ, Craik FIM, Habib R, Houle S 820472400 Journal Article
Brain/mind correlates of human memory Advances in Psychological Science: Biological and Cognitive Aspects Tulving E 820472400 Book Chapter
Towards a neurocognitive science of memory International Journal of Psychology Tulving E 820472400 Abstract
Functional brain maps of retrieval mode and recovery of episodic information NeuroReport Nyberg L, Tulving E, Habib R, Nilsson L-G, Kapur S, Houle S, Cabeza REL, McIntosh AR, Cabeza R 820213200 Journal Article
Functional role of the prefrontal cortex in retrieval of memories: a PET study NeuroReport Kapur S, Craik FIM, Jones C, Brown GM, Houle S, Tulving E 812606400 Journal Article
Novelty assessment in the brain and long-term memory encoding Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Tulving E, Kroll NEA 809928000 Journal Article
Cognitive processes and cerebral cortical fundi NeuroReport Markowitsch HJ, Tulving E 792824400 Journal Article
Frontal lobe damage produces episodic memory impairment Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Wheeler MA, Stuss DT, Tulving E 788936400 Journal Article
On the measurement of priming: What is the correct baseline? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E, Hayman CAG 788936400 Journal Article
Cognitive processing in cerebral cortical sulci NeuroReport Markowitsch HJ, Tulving E 788936400 Journal Article
Neuroimaging studies of memory - Theory and recent PET results Handbook of Neuropsychology Buckner R, Tulving E 788936400 Book Chapter
Introduction to the Section on Memory The Cognitive Neurosciences Tulving E 788936400 Book Chapter
Organization of memory - Quo vadis? The Cognitive Neurosciences Tulving E 788936400 Book Chapter
Novelty encoding networks in the human brain - positron emission tomography data NeuroReport Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ, Kapur S, Habib R, Houle S 787899600 Journal Article
The role of the left prefrontal cortex in verbal processing - Semantic processing or willed action? NeuroReport Kapur S, Rose R, Liddle PF, Zipursky RB, Brown GM, Stuss DT, Tulving E 783230400 Journal Article
What do animal models of memory model? Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ 778392000 Journal Article
Neuroanatomical correlates of retrieval in episodic memory - Auditory sentence recognition Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Tulving E, Kapur S, Markowitsch HJ, Craik FIM, Habib R, Houle S 763707600 Journal Article
Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: positron emission tomography findings Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Tulving E, Kapur S, Craik FIM, Moscovitch M, Houle S 763707600 Journal Article
Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory - Levels of processing effect Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Kapur S, Craik FIM, Tulving E, Wilson AA, Houle S, Brown GM 763707600 Journal Article
Cognitive processes and cerebral cortical fundi - Findings from positron-emission tomography studies Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Markowitsch HJ, Tulving E 757400400 Journal Article
Reducing retroactive interference: An interference analysis Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Bower GH, Thompson-Schill S, Tulving E 757400400 Journal Article
Foreword Metacognition: Knowing about Knowing Tulving E 757400400 Book Chapter
What are the memory systems of 1994? Memory Systems 1994 Schacter DL, Tulving E 757400400 Book Chapter
Stochastic independence in the recognition/identification paradigm European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E, Hayman CAG 754722000 Journal Article
The role of repetition and associative interference in new semantic learning in amnesia - A case experiment Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Hayman CAG, Macdonald CA, Tulving E 746856000 Journal Article
What is episodic memory? Current Directions in Psychological Science Tulving E 725864400 Journal Article
Pharmacology of human-memory and cognition - Illustrations from the effects of benzodiazepines and cholinergic drugs Journal of Psychopharmacology Danion JM, Weingartner H, File SE, Jaffard R, Sunderland T, Tulving E, Warburton DM 725864400 Journal Article
Perceptual and conceptual cueing in implicit and explicit retrieval Memory Challis BH, Chiu C-Y, Kerr SA, Law J, Schneider L, Yonelinas A, Tulving E 725864400 Journal Article
Recognition-failure constraints and the average maximum Psychological Review Flexser AJ, Tulving E 725864400 Journal Article
Human memory Memory Concepts -1993 - Basic And Clinical Aspects Tulving E 725864400 Book Chapter
Varieties of consciousness and levels of awareness in memory Attention: Selection, Awareness and Control. A Tribute to Donald Broadbent Tulving E 725864400 Book Chapter
Self-knowledge of an amnesic individual is represented abstractly The Mental Representation of Trait and Autobiographical Knowledge About the Self Tulving E 725864400 Book Chapter
Special issue on memory-systems - Editor's note JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Schacter DL, Tulving E 707371200 Abstract
On the nature of the Tulving-Wiseman function Psychological Review Tulving E, Flexser AJ 694242000 Journal Article
Memory systems and the brain Clinical Neuropharmacology Supplementary A Tulving E 694242000 Journal Article
Episodic memory Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory Tulving E 694242000 Book Chapter
Hermann Ebbinghaus Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory Tulving E 694242000 Book Chapter
Priming and memory systems Neuroscience Year - Supplement 2 to the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience Tulving E, Schacter DL 694242000 Book Chapter
On the reality of the Tulving-Wiseman function BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Tulving E, Flexser AJ 690786000 Abstract
Interview with Endel Tulving Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Tulving E 688971600 Journal Article
Long-lasting perceptual priming and semantic learning in amnesia: A case experiment Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Tulving E, Hayman CAG, Macdonald CA 678340800 Journal Article
Ningen no fukusuu kioku sistemu (Multiple human memory systems) Kagaku (Japanese Science Journal) Tulving E 662706000 Journal Article
Memory research is not a zero-sum game American Psychologist Tulving E 662706000 Journal Article
Concepts of human memory Memory: Organization and Locus of Change Tulving E 662706000 Book Chapter
Ben Murdock and complexities of memory Relating Theory and Data - Essays on Human Memory in Honor of Bennet B Murdock Tulving E 662706000 Book Chapter
Priming and human memory systems Science Tulving E, Schacter DL 631170000 Journal Article
Memory systems The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E 631170000 Book Chapter
Encoding specificity principle The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E 631170000 Book Chapter
Encoding operations in memory The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E 631170000 Book Chapter
Episodic memory The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E 631170000 Book Chapter
Remembering and knowing the past American Scientist Tulving E 615268800 Journal Article
Contingent dissociation between recognition and fragment completion - The method of triangulation Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Hayman GAC, Tulving E 604731600 Journal Article
Is priming in fragment completion based on a traceless memory system? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Hayman GAC, Tulving E 599634000 Journal Article
Memory: Performance, knowledge, and experience European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Tulving E 599634000 Journal Article
Priming of semantic autobiographical knowledge: a case study of retrograde amnesia Brain and Cognition Tulving E, Schacter DL, McLachlan DR, Moscovitch M, McLachlan D 586411200 Journal Article
Recognition failure of recallable unique names - Evidence for an empirical law of memory and learning Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Nilsson L-G, Law J, Tulving E 575874000 Journal Article
Regional cerebral blood flow and episodic memory retrieval Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Tulving E, Risberg J, Ingvar DH 568011600 Journal Article
Forgetting in primed fragment completion Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Sloman SA, Hayman CAG, Ohta N, Law J, Tulving E 568011600 Journal Article
No eternal truth in gaps - Reply Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E 565333200 Journal Article
Citation classic - Episodic and semantic memory Current Contents: Social & Behavioral Sciences Tulving E 565246800 Journal Article
Citation-classic - Encoding specificity and retrieval-processes in episodic memory Current Contents: Social & Behavioral Sciences Tulving E 564642000 Journal Article
Do animals have autobiographical memory? BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Tulving E 563173200 Abstract
Multiple memory systems and consciousness Human Neurobiology Tulving E 536475600 Journal Article
No eternal truth in gaps Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E 536475600 Journal Article
Recognition failure of categorized words Memory & Cognition Nilsson L-G, Dinniwell M, Tulving E 536475600 Journal Article
Memory experiments - A strategy for research Neurobehavioral Recovery from Head Injury Tulving E 536475600 Book Chapter
Exceptions to recognition failure BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Nilsson LG, Tulving E 532242000 Abstract
Learning and retention of computer-related vocabulary in memory-impaired patients - Method of vanishing cues Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Glisky EL, Schacter DL, Tulving E 517982400 Journal Article
What kind of a hypothesis is the distinction between episodic and semantic memory? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Tulving E 512715600 Journal Article
Monitoring of recall performance by memory-disordered patients JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Schacter DL, Mclachlan DR, Moscovitch M, Tulving E 507877200 Abstract
Mnemonic precedence in amnesic patients: an analogue of the AB error in infants? Child Development Schacter DL, Moscovitch M, Tulving E, Freedman M 504939600 Journal Article
Computer learning by memory-impaired patients - Acquisition and retention of complex knowledge Neuropsychologia Glisky EL, Schacter DL, Tulving E 504939600 Journal Article
Episodic and semantic memory - Where should we go from here? Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E 504939600 Journal Article
Rehabilitation of memory in patients with organic or traumatic amnesia International Congress of Applied Psychology Moscovitch M, Schacter D, Glisky E, Tulving E 504939600 Presentation
The 1st 100 years 100 years from now BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Tulving E 501656400 Abstract
Memory and consciousness Canadian Psychology Tulving E 473403600 Journal Article
Ebbinghaus's memory: What did he learn and remember? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Tulving E 473403600 Journal Article
How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist Tulving E 473403600 Journal Article
On the classification problem in learning and memory Perspectives on Learning and Memory Tulving E 473403600 Book Chapter
Precis of elements of episodic memory Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E 441781200 Journal Article
Relations among components and processes of memory Behavioral and Brain Sciences Tulving E 441781200 Journal Article
Multiple learning and memory systems Psychology in the 1990's Tulving E 441781200 Book Chapter
A proposal for the development of a National Memory Inventory Cognitive Aspects of Survey Methodology - Building a Bridge Between Disciplines Tulving E, Press SJ 441781200 Book Chapter
Tracking of memory disorders over time. American Psychological Association Moscovitch M, Schacter D, McLachlan DR, Tulving E 441781200 Presentation
Memories on the rising and falling blood-alcohol curve BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Parker ES, Schoenberg R, Schwartz BL, Tulving E 437893200 Abstract
Ecphoric processes in episodic memory Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society Of London Series B: Biological Sciences Tulving E 410245200 Journal Article
Priming and recognition failure Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Flexser AJ, Tulving E 378709200 Journal Article
Synergistic ecphory in recall and recognition Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E 378709200 Journal Article
Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Tulving E, Schacter DL, Stark HA 378709200 Journal Article
Functional retrograde amnesia - A quantitative case study Neuropsychologia Schacter DL, Wang PL, Tulving E, Freedman M 378709200 Journal Article
Memory, amnesia, and the episodic/semantic distinction Expression of Knowledge Schacter DL, Tulving E 378709200 Book Chapter
Amnesia and memory research Human Memory and Amnesia Schacter DL, Tulving E 378709200 Book Chapter
Similarity relations in recognition Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Tulving E 347173200 Journal Article
Three-dimensional memory traces - A model and its application to forgetting Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Ogilvie JC, Tulving E, Paskowitz S, Jones GV 315550800 Journal Article
Exceptions to recognition failure of recallable words Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Gardiner JM, Tulving E 315550800 Journal Article
Citation classic - Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words Current Contents: Social & Behavioral Sciences Tulving E 300340800 Journal Article
Exclusion of learned material from recall as a post-retrieval operation Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Roediger HL, Tulving E 284014800 Journal Article
Relation between encoding specificity and levels of processing Levels of Processing in Human Memory Tulving E 284014800 Book Chapter
Memory research: What kind of progress? Perspectives in Memory Research Tulving E 284014800 Book Chapter
Similarity of lures in recognition memory BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Tulving E 284014800 Abstract
Remembering and forgetting BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY Tulving E 262843200 Abstract
When retrieval cueing fails British Journal of Psychology Watkins MJ, Tulving E 252478800 Journal Article
Retrieval independence in recognition and recall Psychological Review Flexser AJ, Tulving E 252478800 Journal Article
Richard Semon's theory of memory Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Schacter DL, Eich JE, Tulving E 252478800 Journal Article
Recognition failure of words with a single meaning Memory & Cognition Tulving E, Watkins OC 220942800 Journal Article
Inhibition from part-list cues and rate of recall Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Roediger HL, Stellon CC, Tulving E 220942800 Journal Article
The measurement of subjective organization in free recall Psychological Bulletin Sternberg RJ, Tulving E 220942800 Journal Article
Retrieval cues and release from proactive inhibition American Journal of Psychology O'Neill M, Sutcliffe J, Tulving E 210398400 Journal Article
Encoding specificity - Relation between recall superiority and recognition failure Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory Wiseman S, Tulving E 189320400 Journal Article
Context effects in recognition memory for faces Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Watkins MJ, Ho E, Tulving E 189320400 Journal Article
Role de la memoire semantique dans le stockage et la recuperation de l'information episodique Bulletin de Psychologie: La memoire semantique Ehrlich S, Tulving E 189320400 Book Chapter
Ecphoric processes in recall and recognition Recall and Recognition Tulving E 189320400 Book Chapter
Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words Reading in Human Memory Tulving E, Pearlstone Z 189320400 Book Chapter
Effectiveness of retrieval cues in memory for words Readings in Human Memory Tulving E, Osler S 189320400 Book Chapter
Subjective organization and effects of repetition in multi-trial free-recall learning Readings in Human Memory Tulving E 189320400 Book Chapter
Model of cue interaction in retrieval from memory - Preliminary report NOTICES OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Ogilvie J, Tulving E, Paskowitz S 189320400 Abstract
Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General Craik FIM, Tulving E 172036800 Journal Article
Structure of memory traces Psychological Review Tulving E, Watkins MJ 157784400 Journal Article
Episodic memory - When recognition fails Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Watkins MJ, Tulving E 157784400 Journal Article
Recall and recognition: A reply to Light, Kimble, and Pellegrino Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Watkins MJ, Tulving E 157784400 Journal Article
Relation between recognition and recognition failure of recallable words Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Tulving E, Wiseman S 157784400 Journal Article
A test of confusion theory of encoding specificity Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Wiseman S, Tulving E 157784400 Journal Article
On negative transfer: Effects of testing one list on the recall of another Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Tulving E, Watkins MJ 126248400 Journal Article
Recall and recognition of semantically encoded words Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E 126248400 Journal Article
Effects of temporal and semantic encoding in immediate recall upon subsequent retrieval Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Bartlett JC, Tulving E 126248400 Journal Article
Cue-dependent forgetting American Scientist Tulving E 126248400 Journal Article
The logic of memory representation The Psychology of Learning and Motivation Tulving E, Bower GH 126248400 Book Chapter
Continuity between recall and recognition American Journal of Psychology Tulving E, Watkins MJ 94712400 Journal Article
Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory Psychological Review Tulving E, Thomson DM 94712400 Journal Article
Effects of three types of repetition on cued and noncued recall of words Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Mathews RC, Tulving E 94712400 Journal Article
Inhibition effects of intralist repetition in free-recall Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Hastie R 63090000 Journal Article
Episodic and semantic memory Organization Memory Tulving E 63090000 Book Chapter
Retroactive inhibition in free recall - Inaccessibility of information available in the memory store Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Psotka J 31554000 Journal Article
Retrieval processes in recognition memory - Effects of associative context Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Thomson DM 31554000 Journal Article
Free recall of trilingual lists Cognitive Psychology Tulving E, Colotla VA 18000 Journal Article
Associative encoding and retrieval - Weak and strong cues Journal of Experimental Psychology Thomson DM, Tulving E 18000 Journal Article
Memory and verbal learning Annual Review of Psychology Tulving E, Madigan SA 18000 Journal Article
Short- and long-term memory - Different retrieval mechanisms Biology of Memory Tulving E 18000 Book Chapter
Distinguishing association formation from item encoding using ERPs Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner Kim ASN, Binns MA, Alain C, Tulving E -28800 Abstract
Retrograde amnesia in free recall Science Tulving E -31518000 Journal Article
Effectiveness of retrieval cues in memory for words Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Osler S -63140400 Journal Article
Functional units and retrieval processes in free recall Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Patterson RD -63140400 Journal Article
When is recall higher than recognition Psychonomic Science Tulving E -63140400 Journal Article
Theoretical issues in free recall Verbal Behavior and General Behavior Theory Tulving E -63140400 Book Chapter
Organized retention and cued recall Research and Development Toward the Improvement of Education Tulving E -63140400 Book Chapter
Identification of simultaneously presented simple visual and auditory stimuli Acta Psychologica Tulving E, Lindsay PH -94676400 Journal Article
Transfer effects in whole/part free-recall learning Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E, Osler S -94676400 Journal Article
The effects of presentation and recall of material in free-recall learning Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Tulving E -94676400 Journal Article
Subjective organization and effects of repetition in multi-trial free-recall learning Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Tulving E -126212400 Journal Article
Input and output interference in short-term associative memory Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Arbuckle TY -126212400 Journal Article
Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Tulving E, Pearlstone Z -126212400 Journal Article
Vividness of words and learning to learn in free-recall-learning Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E, McNulty JA, Ozier M -157748400 Journal Article
The effect of order of presentation on learning of "unrelated" words Psychonomic Science Tulving E -157748400 Journal Article
Absolute judgements of simultaneously presented visual and auditory stimuli Psychonomic Science Lindsay PH, Cuddy LL, Tulving E -157748400 Journal Article
Intratrial and intertrial retention: Notes towards a theory of free recall verbal learning Psychological Review Tulving E -189370800 Journal Article
Interaction of two sources of information in tachistoscopic word recognition Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E, Mandler G, Baumal R -189370800 Journal Article
Familiarity of letter-sequences and tachistoscopic identification American Journal of Psychology Tulving E -220906800 Journal Article
Stimulus information and contextual information as determinants of tachistoscopic recognition of words Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E, Gold C -220906800 Journal Article
Sources of intratrial interference in immediate recall of paired associates Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Tulving E, Arbuckle TY -220906800 Journal Article
Interproblem transfer in identification of concepts involving positive and negative instances Canadian Journal of Psychology Fryatt MJ, Tulving E -220906800 Journal Article
Subjective organization in free-recall of unrelated words Psychological Review Tulving E -252442800 Journal Article
Concurrent effects of contextual constraint and word-frequency on immediate recall and learning of verbal material Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E, Patkau JE -252442800 Journal Article
The effect of alphabetical subjective organization on memorizing unrelated words Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E -252442800 Journal Article
The effect of practice on utilization of information from positive and negative instances in concept-identification Canadian Journal of Psychology Freibergs V, Tulving E -283978800 Journal Article
The effect of oculomotor adjustments on apparent size American Journal of Psychology Heinemann EG, Tulving E, Nachmias J -347137200 Journal Article
Interaction between proaction and retroaction in short-term retention Canadian Journal of Psychology Tulving E, Thornton GB -347137200 Journal Article
The relation of visual-acuity to convergence and accommodation Journal of Experimental Psychology Tulving E -378673200 Journal Article
Estimations of loudness by a group of untrained observers American Journal of Psychology Stevens JC, Tulving E -410209200 Journal Article

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